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Gynecological Disease

Vulvar Cancer: Definition, Symptoms, Clinical Stages, Checkups and Treatment

Definition of Vulvar Cancer
 
Vulvar cancer is a rare type of cancer, it forms in a woman’s external genitals, called the vulva. The cancer usually grows slowly over several years. Vulva cancer is a malignant tumor of the vulva, it’s about 1% of systemic malignancies, accounts for 5% of female genital malignancies.
 
Symptoms of Vulvar Cancer
 
The main symptoms of vulvar cancer are external pudendal nodules and masses. Often accompanied by a history of pain and itching. Some patients present with vulvar ulcer, which doesn’t heal over time, late stage patients also have purulent or bloody secretion increases, urinary pain and other discomforts.


 
Clinical stages
 
Vulvar cancer can be divided into 4 stages clinically,
 
Stage 1: All lesions are confined to the vulva, with the maximum diameter of 2cm or less, and no inguinal lymph node metastasis was suspected.
Stage 2: All lesions are confined to the vulva, with a maximum diameter of more than 2cm, and no inguinal lymph node metastasis was suspected.
Stage 3: Lesions beyond external vulva, inguinal lymph nodes without metastasis or suspected metastasis.
Stage 4: Any of the following;
a.      Inguinal lymph nodes fixed or ruptured, clinical affirmation is metastasis;
b.      The lesions invaded mucous membrane of the rectum, bladder, and urethra, or the tumor has been fixed to the bone;
c.      Distant metastasis or deep pelvic lymph nodes.
 
Vulvar Cancer Checkups
 
Gynecology checkups
Colposcope
Vaginal biopsy
 
Treatment of Vulvar Cancer
 
Surgery is the preferred treatment for vulvar cancer, conventional surgery for vulvar cancer should include radical vulval resection and bilateral inguinal lymph node dissection, pelvic lymph node dissection is performed only in patients with positive femoral lymph nodes, simple resection can be performed for bowen’s disease, Pai disease is often treated with radical dissection, large vestibular adenocarcinoma must be removed according to the situation of part of the vaginal and levator ani muscle.
 
In recent years, with the improvement of radiotherapeutic equipment and technology, the adverse reactions of radiotherapy have been reduced, nowadays, vulva cancer has been treated by radiotherapy, especially in the contraindications of surgery, or late unfavorable surgery patients, the application of radiotherapy has a certain curative effect. 

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